Two PD positions available for glass research.


Applications for postdoctoral fellowships are invited for conducting fundamental and innovative research at the Center for Research, Technology and Education in Vitreous Materials (CeRTEV). One of the positions is to work at the LEMAF – Laboratory of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials at Physics Institute of USP in São Carlos and the other at the LAVIE – Laboratory of Special Glasses at Chemistry Institute of UNESP, in in Araraquara, Brazil; The period of the fellowship is two years, starting in SeptemberOctober 2019, renewable for two additional years upon mutual consent.

CeRTEV is an 11-year (started in 2013) joint effort of the Federal University at São Carlos (UFSCar), the University of São Paulo (USP) and the São Paulo State University (UNESP), to research the area of Functional Glasses and Glass-Ceramics.

The post-doctoral research will be focused on fundamental investigations in optical and magnetic glasses with views to innovative applications. Position one will focus on the development (design, synthesis and characterization) of optical glasses for photonic and biophotonic applications among which could be sensing (ionizing radiation, temperature, gas, etc), optical amplifying, lasing, etc. Position two will focus on the synthesis and characterization of different families of glasses and glass-ceramics (oxide, phosphate and fluoride) with magnetic properties. This is a very new field of application for glasses and many opportunities and possibilities are available. Previous experiences with magnetic characterization techniques and/or synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles are also desired.

The researcher is expected to conduct the post-doc activities in one of the joint CeRTEV laboratories cited above under supervision ofthe leading Principal Investigator in these labs, but also working in close collaboration with the other CeRTEV researchers and students.

Applicants should have a Ph.D. degree in Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science or Engineering (knowledge in electronics and device building is also welcome), previous experience in glass science, solid state physics or chemistry is advantageous. The language requirements are English, Spanish, French or Portuguese.

The monthly fellowships (non-taxable) include ca. BRL 7,373,10 -plus 15% professional expenses (e.g., for travel). Our post-docs from Canada, Russia, Iran, India, Colombia, Pakistan and Brazil typically spend from BRL2000 to BRL2500/month for comfortable living style. Travel expenses from and to their home countries will also be covered.

Please send your application including CV, list of publications, a 2-page research proposal, and the names and email addresses of two senior references by July 10, 2019 to the following persons: Profa. Andrea de Camargo (email- andreasc@ifsc.usp.br) and Prof. Marcelo Nalin (email – marcelo.nalin@unesp.br)

Sócio da SBPMat escreve sobre futuro da Química na Nature Chemistry a convite da revista.


Aldo Zarbin
Aldo Zarbin

O professor Aldo Jose Gorgatti Zarbin (UFPR, Departamento de Química), sócio da SBPMat, é um dos 58 cientistas do mundo, e o único da América Latina, que participou de um artigo especial sobre o futuro da Química, publicado na Nature Chemistry no dia 22 de março, na ocasião do décimo aniversário da revista. Zarbin e os outros cientistas foram convidados por esse destacadíssimo periódico científico a escreverem acerca dos aspectos mais desafiadores e interessantes do desenvolvimento das linhas de pesquisa nas quais atuam.

O professor Zarbin atua principalmente na síntese de nanomateriais em interfaces líquido/líquido, sua caracterização e suas aplicações na geração e armazenamento de energia, catálise e sensores.
O artigo especial da Nature Chemistry, que inclui a visão do cientista brasileiro, pode ser acessado aqui: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41557-019-0236-7.
Referência do artigo: Charting a course for chemistry. Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Mu-Hyun Baik, […]Hua Zhang . Nature Chemistry, volume 11, pages 286–294 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-019-0236-7

XV B-MRS Meeting: message of the chairladies.


Dear readers,

We look forward to your participation at the XV B-MRS meeting, to be held in September, 25-29, in Campinas, São Paulo. This year the meeting congregates more than 1500 participants, with 2142 accepted abstracts. Fifteen years after the first annual meeting of SBPMat, as it was called then, our figures are impressive, both for the large number of participants and abstracts as well as for the high quality of the scientific contributions, divided in oral and poster presentations.  The current edition of the Annual Meeting covers almost all relevant research areas of Materials Science.

The XV B-MRS Annual Meeting is comprised of 20 Symposia, 2 workshops and 2 Tutorials. The program also includes 7 Plenary Lectures from the most prestigious scientists in cutting edge materials science. The Opening Ceremony will be followed by the Memorial Lecture “Joaquim da Costa Ribeiro”; the renowned scientist Aldo Craievich will talk about the relevance and challenges on advanced materials characterization. Furthermore, in this Meeting program, three discussion panels will take place during lunchtime: Research in Germany, Meet the Editors and Materials Research and Innovation. In particular, the latter will discuss research, development and innovation in industry and the role of innovation agencies and startup ventures.

During the Closing Ceremony, the symposium organizers will honor students with the “Bernard Gross Award” for the best poster and best oral presentations of each Symposium. Awards from the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) and the American Chemical Society (ACS) will be also granted for best posters and oral contributions.

On behalf of Organizing Committee, we would like to thank the Brazil-MRS staff and board, the funding agencies, the symposium organizers and the local committee members, for their commitment and great effort to make this Meeting possible.

We hope we can all enjoy a very hectic Meeting with stimulating exchange of scientific ideas and results, creating new insights and collaborations, to reach even further quality levels in Materials Science research.

Mônica A. Cotta and Ana Flávia Nogueira

Conference Chairs

Report of the XIV SBPMat Meeting: plenary lectures with their files, memorial lecture, symposia, awards…


OPENING CEREMONY

Sunday, September 27. By 6:45 pm. Hundreds of people enter the plenary room of the Convention Center “SulAmérica”, in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) for the opening ceremony of the 14th annual meeting of the Brazil Materials Research Society, whose acronym in Portuguese is SBPMat. The opening table is composed by the chairmen of the event, Prof. Marco Cremona (Brazil) and Prof. Fernando Lázaro Freire Junior (Brazil), as well as the present SBPMat president, Prof. Roberto Mendonça Faria (Brazil), the immediate past president of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS), Prof. Rodrigo Martins (Portugal), and the general secretary of the International Union of Materials Research Societies (IUMRS), Prof. Robert Chang (USA). Behind them, a big banner shows the logos of dozens of institutions and companies that gave financial support to the event.

At the opening table, from the readers´ left: Prof. Rodrigo Martins (Portugal, E-MRS immediate past president and IUMRS officer), Prof. Fernando Lázaro Freire Junior (Brazil, chair of the event), Prof. Marco Cremona (Brazil, chair of the event), Prof. Roberto Mendonça Faria (Brazil, SBPMat president), and Prof. Robert Chang (USA, IUMRS general secretary).

Near 1,000 attendants are present at the ceremony, which starts with the Brazilian national anthem. The chair Prof. Cremona welcomes the participants to the meeting. Prof. Robert Chang, who was president of MRS (Materials Research Society) in 1989 and founded IUMRS in 1991, convokes the participants of all countries to try to solve together the most important global challenges for materials research, related to health, food, environment, transport etc. Representing E-MRS, Prof. Martins, who presently takes care of Global Leadership and Service Award at IUMRS, emphasizes his desire of promoting international connections. Prof. Faria talks a little bit about Brazil, which, as well as other developing countries, is very rich in raw materials but needs to add value to its products by means of science and technology.

After the opening, Prof. Eloisa Biasotto Mano (Brazil) goes to the stage for the Memorial Lecture “Joaquim da Costa Ribeiro“, which is a distinction bestowed annually by SBPMat on a Brazilian researcher with outstanding career in the field of Materials. This 91-year-old scientist pursued international scientific education at a time when most women were illiterate in Brazil, and founded in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) the first research group in polymers in the country. This group later became the Institute of Macromolecules (IMA), which was directed by Eloisa until she retired. In the memorial lecture, she talks about macromolecular materials and, using a representation of a polyethylene molecule made by herself with wire, she shows how these kind of molecules behave in response to their big size. A group of Prof. Eloisa´s disciples (among them, the present director of IMA) assists her with the presentation, showing affection, gratitude and admiration for her . After the talk, many attendants of diverse ages make a queue to take a picture with this protagonist of the dawn of polymer science in Brazil. Eloisa, who is professor emeritus of UFRJ, poses for all the pictures she is ask to. At the end of the photo session, she accepts our microphone and leaves a message for the young people starting a carreer in science:

Right after the memorial lecture, in the same venue, the participants enjoy the welcome cocktail while meeting friends and collaborators. The cocktail is animated by live “chorinho” music, an instrumental Brazilian popular genre original from Rio de Janeiro.

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PLENARY LECTURES

Nader Engheta

Monday, September 28. At 8:30 in the morning, the plenary room is full of attendants waiting to learn about metamaterials and the extreme behavior of waves interacting with them in the first plenary lecture of the event. The speaker is Nader Engheta, the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania (United States). This Iranian-born scientist is a recognized world leader in research on metamaterials, and holds an H number of 69. Through experimental and theoretical research, Engheta and his collaborators have created such unconventional things as nanocircuits made of metamaterials that function as optical filters. Since the beginning of the talk, Engheta captivates the audience with some history of science and with a world of structures created by using particular composite metamaterials with particular sizes and geometries and arranged in particular ways with the aim of obtaining unconventional interaction with light and other waves.

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Edgar Zanotto.

In the afternoon, at 3:30, more than 400 people attend the second plenary lecture, which is about glass-ceramics (materials formed through controlled crystallization of certain glasses). The speaker is the Brazilian researcher Edgar Zanotto, Professor at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), in Brazil, where he founded and heads the Vitreous Materials Laboratory (LaMaV) that assembles a big international team. Zanotto, who is a world-renowned expert on glass-ceramics, presents in his lecture many useful applications of these materials, such as cooking hobs or artificial bones and teeth. He also mentions the scientists who, along 60 years of glass-ceramics history, contributed to the advancement of research on that topic. In spite of those contributions, the comprehension of some aspects of the formation of glass-ceramics is not complete, he says, but that is not a problem for glass-ceramics fabrication and applications. It´s just an opportunity for fundamental scientists.

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Paul Ducheyne. Biomaterials. Merging Materials Science with Biology.

Tuesday, September 29. 8:30 am, time for the third plenary lecture of the event. The lecturer, Prof. Paul Ducheyne, also comes from University of Pennsylvania (USA), where he directs a multidisciplinary center for bioactive materials and tissue engineering research. An authority on biomaterials field, Ducheyne is the editor in chief of a six-volume book on biomaterials published in 2011. In the talk, he shows a series of biomaterial-made devices, grafts, scaffolds etc., most of them already being commercialized, that actively interact with the body, either by promoting tissue formation (for example, bone) or by releasing drugs for diverse treatments. Ducheyne presents their effects on solving health problems, numbers about their markets, and scientific recent advances that can make them even more effective.

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Ulrike Diebold. Surfaces of Metal Oxides.

Some hours later, at 3:30 pm, hundreds of participants cluster again, this time around Prof. Ulrike Diebold, whose research group at UT Wien (Austria) is devoted to the understanding of fundamental mechanisms and processes occurring in surfaces at the atomic scale. Prof. Diebold catches the audience attention from the beginning to the end by showing, through scanning tunneling microscopy images, how she spies the behavior of atoms on the surface of metal oxides – topic in which she is a worldwide leader researcher. In particular, she reveals two secrets of metal oxide surfaces: the first one about how oxygen adsorbs on titanium dioxide and the second one about how active single metal atoms are in oxidation process in magnetite.

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George Malliaras.

Wednesday, September 30. In the plenary lecture of the morning, the audience is transported again to the social-impacting world of biomaterials by Prof. George Malliaras, Greek-born, working at École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne (France), where he heads the Department of Bioelectronics. Malliaras has an H index of 64. After many years working on organic electronics, he entered the new field of organic bioelectronics and obtained impacting results. His research is about electronic devices made of conducting polymers that match properties of living tissues. These devices are used for interfacing with human brain – a “natural electronic device”. The final purpose is to study brain activity or diagnose and even treat neurological diseases such as epilepsy. An example of device is a transistor that enables boosted in vivo recording of brain activity with low invasion. As suggestions for the materials community, Malliaras highlights the importance of collaboration with neuroscientists and physicians and the challenge of improving the understanding of electronic transport and structure.

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Ichiro Takeuchi. Combinatorial Approach to Materials Discovery.

In the talk of the afternoon, the speed of science progress accelerates following the beat of the combinatorial approach. Prof. Ichiro Takeuchi, from University of Maryland (USA), explains how his group manages to optimize materials and properties discovery. As well as in lottery one can buy a big number of tickets to have more chances to win a prize, in materials discovery scientists can produce a huge number of combinations of elements to obtain a compound with desirable properties. For example, for quaternary compounds, millions of combinations are possible, from which only 0,01 % are known. In Prof. Takeuchi´s lab, machines for thin film deposition used with masks work night and day to create patchwork-like samples containing libraries of similar compounds. Then, the libraries are characterized by rapid tools, giving information about the properties of several compounds at the same time. Coupled with appropriate theory and computational simulations, these high-throughput experiments become real materials discovery engines.

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Claudia Draxl. On the Search of Novel Materials: Insight and Discovery though sharing of big data.

Thursday, October 1st, 8:30 am. In the last plenary lecture of the event, Prof. Claudia Draxl (Humboldt University, Germany) publicly wonders how to make available the huge amount of data resulting from experiments around the world, high-throughput screening, computer clusters etc. Why to do that with scientific data? For confirmation, broad dissemination in society, sharing with distant collaborators and reuse with new purposes. With that aim, Prof. Draxl and collaborators from European countries are facing the development of a repository of materials raw data, called Novel Materials Discovery (NoMaD), which hosts, organizes and shares materials data on the web.

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SYMPOSIA SESSIONS

The symposia at SBPMat annual meetings are selected from proposals that can be submitted to the event committee by any scientist from anywhere in the world. This edition of the event encompassed 26 symposia (including the satellite event “8th International Summit on Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells Stability”) and 2 workshops, and it registered symposia coordinators from Argentina, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Swiss, USA, and, of course, Brazil. Within the symposia, near 190 invited speeches and more than 2,000 technical works are presented and discussed in oral and posters sessions, on a wide range of subjects going from carbon nanostructures to biomaterials, from characterization techniques to computer simulation, from materials for sustainable development to safe use of nanomaterials.

While some symposia have been held year after year in the SBPMat meeting, the University Chapters symposium was a novelty of this year meeting. It was completely organized by students from diverse points of Brazil who are coordinators of the SBPMat University Chapters. The chapters are organized teams, affiliated with the society, composed of graduate and undergraduate students working in materials field. The members of these groups carry out diverse activities that complement their academic education. The students from the existing chapters, which were eight in number up to the moment of the meeting, faced the challenge of organizing a symposium – a task that is usually done by senior researchers.

In fact, students have not only active but also massive participation in the XIV SBPMat meeting. Almost half of the attendants (950 people) were master, doctoral and even undergraduate students doing research on materials field. In Brazil, the federal agency for research support, CNPq, has a program called “scientific initiation” that grants scholarships to undergraduate students to conduct research under the supervision of a Professor.

For the oral sessions of the symposia, all along the meeting, after the morning plenary session, and before and after the afternoon plenary talks, the attendants distributed themselves among 17 rooms. The poster sessions took place at the end of the afternoon from Monday to Wednesday and in the morning on Thursday. Walking through the long corridors of the poster sessions, one could see active scientific discussion, many times between a young author and a renowned researcher. One could also hear very positive comments about the original arrangement of the poster panels. The size of the poster session was impressive. In total, near 1,800 research works were presented in the posters.

View of the first poster session.

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EXHIBITION

Twice a day from Monday to Wednesday, the attendants could take a break and have a coffee with cookies while visiting the exhibition of the event, which encompassed 32 stands showing a variety of scientific instruments, services, scientific journals, books and opportunities for the materials community. In addition, on Wednesday, the participants had the opportunity to attend four hours of technical talks given by some expositors about fabrication and characterization techniques.

Coffee break and exhibition.

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CLOSING AND AWARDS CEREMONY

On Thursday by 12:30 the closing ceremony started. In the closing panel, Prof. Soo Wohn Lee, from MRS Korea and conference chair of the IUMRS-ICAM 2015, joined the representatives of SBPMat, E-MRS and IUMRS.

The meeting chair Prof. Cremona presented some photos of the past days and hours that made the public remember so nice and fruitful moments. He also presented the numbers of the event: 2,000 registered people from 985 institutions, among which 300 were foreign researchers from 40 countries. Finally, he announced that the next SBPMat annual meeting will be held in Campinas city (São Paulo state).

After the closing words, more than 20 prizes were given to young researchers within four different awards: the Bernhard Gross Award, a traditional SBPMat recognition for the best works of students, and the awards bestowed by IUMRS, E-MRS and Horiba.

Announcement of the students who won the Bernhard Gross Award.

See list of the awards winners.

Entrevistas com plenaristas do XIII Encontro da SBPMat: Sir Colin Humphreys (University of Cambridge, Reino Unido).


Professor Sir Colin Humphreys.

Sir Colin Humphreys, PhD pela University of Cambridge e Bacharel em Ciências pelo Imperial College, é Professor do Departamento de Ciência de Materiais e Metalurgia da University of Cambridge, no Reino Unido. Sua pesquisa abrange três temas principais: materiais e dispositivos baseados em nitreto de gálio (GaN), microscopia eletrônica avançada e materiais aeroespaciais para temperaturas ultraelevadas. Ele já publicou centenas de trabalhos sobre microscopia eletrônica e apresentou diversas palestras plenárias e convidadas em todo o mundo. Recebeu prêmios nacionais e internacionais por suas pesquisas sobre difração e microscopia eletrônica, bem como sobre nitreto de gálio.

Sir Colin Humphreys fundou uma empresa spinoff  chamada CamGaN para aplicar a pesquisa com nitreto de gálio de seu grupo em LEDs de baixo custo para a iluminação de casas e escritórios. A empresa foi adquirida em fevereiro de 2012 pela Plessey, que fabrica LEDs baseados nessa tecnologia. O professor Humphreys é o fundador e diretor do Cambridge Centre of Gallium Nitride, um centro de nível internacional com instalações voltadas para caracterização, onde a pesquisa é conduzida desde os estudos fundamentais do GaN até suas aplicações em LEDs e lasers. Também fundou e dirige o Cambridge/Rolls-Royce Centre for Advanced Materials for Aerospace, desenvolvendo materiais que agora voam nos motores Rolls-Royce.

Ele é membro da Royal Society, associação independente que reúne vários dos mais renomados cientistas do mundo, vindos de todas as áreas das Ciências, Engenharias e Medicina, e da Royal Academy of Engineering, do Reino Unido. Também é membro do Selwyn College, uma das 31 unidades autônomas da Cambridge University onde os estudantes vivem, comem, socializam e assistem a algumas aulas. Em 2010, ele foi nomeado Cavaleiro (recebeu uma honraria especial e o título de “Sir” da Rainha da Inglaterra) por serviços prestados à ciência.

O professor Sir Colin Humphreys é autor de mais de 600 trabalhos publicados em revistas arbitradas, com mais de 9.400 citações, e seu índice H é 43. Em suas poucas horas vagas, ele escreve livros sobre ciência e religião, como “The Mistery of the Last Supper: Reconstructing the Final Days of Jesus”, (publicado no Brasil com o título “O Mistério da Última Ceia: uma viagem histórica aos últimos dias de Jesus”) recentemente traduzido para o russo, alemão, português, japonês e grego.

Segue nossa entrevista com o professor, que dará uma palestra plenária no XIII Encontro da SBPMat.

Boletim SBPMat: – Por que o senhor acha que o nitreto de gálio é um dos mais importantes materiais semicondutores? Quais são os principais desafios no campo do nitreto de gálio para cientistas e engenheiros em materiais?

Sir Colin Humphreys: – Acho que o nitreto de gálio é um dos materiais semicondutores mais importantes graças à sua ampla variedade de potenciais aplicações e aos benefícios que serão gerados à humanidade a partir delas. Os principais desafios para alcançar essas aplicações são reduzir os custos dos aparelhos baseados em GaN e elevar ainda mais a sua eficiência.

Boletim SBPMat: – Quais são as suas principais contribuições para o desenvolvimento da Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais?

Sir Colin Humphreys: – Minhas principais contribuições para o desenvolvimento da Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais foram solucionar alguns problemas fascinantes de ciência básica, além de desenvolver materiais para a indústria. Por exemplo, eu dirijo um centro de pesquisa em Materiais Avançados da Rolls-Royce, em Cambridge, e alguns dos materiais que desenvolvemos agora estão voando nos motores Rolls-Royce. Além disso, eu dirijo o Cambridge Centre for Gallium Nitride, e os LEDs de baixo custo que produzimos, baseados em GaN sobre silício, hoje são fabricados no Reino Unido pela Plessey.

Boletim SBPMat: – O Brasil tem se esforçado para transferir tecnologia para a indústria. Enquanto isso, o senhor fundou uma empresa spinoff e centros de pesquisa, e em ambos os casos obteve bons resultados com a transferência de tecnologia. Com base nessa experiência, o que o senhor diria para a comunidade de Pesquisa em Materiais do Brasil sobre concretizar a transferência de tecnologia?

Sir Colin Humphreys: – Em primeiro lugar, cientistas e engenheiros precisam ter uma ideia para um produto novo e melhor. Para convencer a indústria, é importante que preparem e apresentem protótipos dos aparelhos. Caso decidam montar sua própria empresa, geralmente é útil trazer um CEO de fora para dirigir os negócios, porque, em sua maioria, cientistas e engenheiros não são muito bons nisso. A escolha do CEO é crucial. E é realmente importante ser muito bem aconselhado. Eu tive sorte ao montar duas empresas porque recebi vários bons conselhos de graça, já que, no Reino Unido, muitas pessoas de Cambridge criaram suas empresas e podem dar boas orientações. Por fim, concretizar a transferência de tecnologia é divertido, mas também trabalhoso! Pode haver muitas adversidades, mas é preciso perseverar! Além disso, entusiasmem-se com seu produto, porque, se vocês mesmos não se entusiasmarem, os outros tampouco o farão! É preciso realmente acreditar no que se está fazendo.

LEDs de GaN sobre substrato de silício de cerca de 15 cm.

Boletim SBPMat: – Se possível, nos fale um pouco sobre o tema da sua palestra plenária no Encontro da SBPMat.

Sir Colin Humphreys: – Na minha palestra plenária em João Pessoa, planejo começar apresentando algumas micrografias eletrônicas em resolução atômica impressionantes, mostrando átomos únicos de impureza de silício em grafeno e indicando como podem ocupar dois pontos diferentes. Também vou mostrar imagens de átomos de silício dançando em grafeno (sei que os brasileiros são excelentes dançarinos!). Então, vou falar sobre o nitreto de gálio (GaN) e como esse incrível material criado pelo homem provavelmente vai nos poupar mais energia e reduzir mais emissões de CO2 do que a energia solar, a eólica e a biomassa juntas! Descreverei como a microscopia eletrônica avançada e a tomografia de sonda atômica têm sido usadas para responder uma questão fascinante: por que os LEDs de GaN são tão brilhantes quando a densidade de deslocamento é tão alta. Também vou descrever como desenvolver LEDs de GaN em substratos de silício de grande área pode reduzir substancialmente o custo dos LEDs, e como é provável que essa economia permita que os LEDs de GaN sejam a forma predominante de iluminação em nossas casas, escritórios, ruas etc. no futuro próximo. Além disso, vou demonstrar como dispositivos eletrônicos baseados GaN são 40% mais eficientes do que aqueles baseados em silício (Si), e que, portanto, substituir os eletrônicos de Si por GaN nos pouparia mais 10% de eletricidade, além da economia de 10 a 15 % vinda do uso dos LEDs de GaN. Assim, o GaN poderia, potencialmente, reduzir o consumo de eletricidade do mundo em 25%, o que é incrível.

Além da economia de energia e das emissões de carbono, se acrescentarmos alumínio ao GaN, ele emitirá luz ultravioleta (UV) profunda, o que pode matar todas as bactérias e vírus. Então, esses LEDs de UV profunda poderiam ser usados para purificar água em todo o mundo, salvando milhões de vidas. Por fim, falarei sobre como a iluminação otimizada por LEDs pode melhorar tanto a nossa saúde quanto as notas de crianças em idade escolar! Minha palestra vai abordar desde a ciência básica até as aplicações.