B-MRS Newsletter. Year 7, issue 4.


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Newsletter of the
Brazilian Materials
Research Society

Year 7, issue 4. May 8, 2020.

B-MRS News

– B-MRS Meeting. B-MRS and IUMRS announce a new schedule and the confirmed plenary speakers for the joint event, which, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, was postponed to 2021. Learn more.

– Letter to the Minister of Health. B-MRS and more than 60 scientific entities have endorsed the letter sent to Minister Nelson Teich on April 29 requesting an action plan to combat the COVID-19 pandemic “based on data collected by science and mirrored in attitudes that were successfully implemented by governments in other countries.” Know more.

– Letter to the Minister of STI. B-MRS subscribed, along with about 70 scientific entities, a letter addressed to Minister Marcos Pontes, sent on April 29. The document highlights the importance of basic science and asks for the creation of a work group with representatives of the scientific community to define strategies related to fundamental research. Know more.

– Pact for life and for Brazil. B-MRS and more than 100 entities have endorsed the document, which was forwarded to the presidents of the three branches of Brazilian government on World Health Day, on April 7. The document asks for the coalescing of all of society, solidarity, discipline and ethical and transparent government code, based on the guidelines of science and public health organizations in facing the pandemic. Learn more.

Featured Paper

A team of researchers in the dental and materials fields has developed a coating for titanium, a material widely used in dental implants. The highly rough superhydrophobic coating significantly reduces the accumulation of bacteria on its surface. The material can be a promising strategy to prevent infections around dental implants. The work was recently reported on ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. Learn more.

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Featured Scientist

We interviewed Edson Roberto Leite, professor at UFSCar and scientific director at LNNano-CNPEM. B-MRS awarded Professor Leite the José Arana Varela Award in its first edition. An outstanding scientist in the field of materials, with internationally recognized contributions in the study of the growth of nanocrystals, in the interview Edson Leite talks about his favorite scientific contributions and his taste for science, and shares memories of José Arana Varela, whom he considers his scientific father. See here.

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(Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil,
August 29 – September 2, 2021)

Postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

New date: August 29 – September 2, 2021.

Same venue: Rafain Convention Center – Foz do Iguaçu (Iguassu Falls), Brazil.

Symposium proposals submission: May 4 – November 2, 2020.

Abstract submission: February 1 – April 11, 2021.

Plenary sessions: 7 plenary speakers and 1 memorial lecture confirmed.

Event website with new schedule: www.sbpmat.org.br/19encontro/

More information about the call for symposia: https://www.sbpmat.org.br/en/sbpmatb-mrs-e-iumrs-anunciam-novo-cronograma-e-plenaristas-do-evento-conjunto-em-2021/

Reading Tips

– Scientists prepare ultra-thin flexible film of normally brittle oxide and develop a technique to manipulate, stretch and keep it stretched, thereby controlling its electrical conductivity (Science paper). Know more.

– Combination of polymers with a wide range of ionic liquids generates new materials with adjustable properties for use in sensors, environmental remediation, batteries, biomedicine … Materials can be compatible with 3D printing (Advanced Functional Materials). Know more.

– With sophisticated nanoengineering, scientists are able to produce a porous nanometric structure that was theoretically predicted and confirm that this lightweight nanostructure is stronger than diamond (Nature Communications). Know more.

– Scientists manage to find in 8 weeks the best materials for a new battery among 3 million candidates, thanks to a method for training neural networks (ACS Central Science). Know more.


– Call for proposals for transnational and high risk research or innovation in materials, from Fapesp + M-ERA consortium. NET. Know more.

– Researcher position at CNPEM in the area of bioelectronics based on graphene and 2D materials (LNNano). Know more.

– Researcher position at CNPEM in computational methods applied to enzymes (LNNano and LNBR). Know more.


XLI Congresso Brasileiro de Aplicações de Vácuo na Indústria e na Ciência. Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil). October 5 – 7, 2020. Site.

5th International Conference of Surfaces, Coatings and NanoStructured Materials – Americas (NANOSMAT-Americas). Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil). October 7 – 10, 2020. Site.

7th Meeting on Self Assembly Structures in Solution and at Interfaces. Bento Gonçalves, RS (Brazil). November 4 – 6, 2020. Site.

– Pan American Ceramics Congress and Ferroelectrics Meeting of Americas (PACC-FMAs 2020). Panama (Panama). November 15 – 19, 2020. Site.

4th Workshop on Coated Tools & Multifunctional Thin Films. Campinas, SP (Brazil). November 16 – 19, 2020. Site.

XIX B-MRS Meeting + IUMRS ICEM (International Conference on Electronic Materials). Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil). August 29 – September 2, 2021. Site.

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You can suggest news, opportunities, events or reading tips in the materials field to be covered by B-MRS Newsletter. Write to comunicacao@sbpmat.org.br.

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B-MRS and IUMRS announce new schedule and plenary sessions for the joint event to be held in 2021.

logo2021b_400pxThe Brazilian Materials Research Society (B-MRS) and the International Union of Materials Research Societies (IUMRS) announce the new schedule and confirm the plenary speakers of the joint event XIX B-MRS Meeting + IUMRS ICEM. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the joint event, which would be held this year, was postponed to be held from August 29 to September 2, 2021. The venue will be maintained: the Rafain Palace Hotel and Conventions, located in Foz do Iguaçu (PR, Brazil).

The new call for thematic symposium proposals starts on May 4 and ends on November 2, 2020. The symposium organizers who submitted proposals in 2019 will be able to again submit them in this new call. In addition, the system will be open to receive new proposals, which should be prepared by groups of researchers, preferably composed of international researchers, on topics related to any type of materials, from synthesis to applications (including electronic materials, which are the focus of IUMRS ICEM).

To submit a symposium proposal, simply complete the online form on the event website. The symposium proposals will be evaluated by the event committee, and, the list of approved symposia will be released between the end of 2020 and the beginning of 2021. The submission of abstracts for presentation within the symposia will remain open from February 1st to April 11th, 2021. The symposium organizers will be responsible for the evaluation of the submitted abstracts and for the symposium program.

The symposia will be the main axis of the event along with the plenary lectures, which will feature internationally renowned scientists, such as Alex Zunger (University of Colorado Boulder, USA), Edson Leite (LNNano, Brazil), Hideo Hosono (TokyoInstitute of Technology, Japan), John Rogers (Northwestern University, USA), Luisa Torsi (Università degli Studi di Bari “A. Moro”, Italy), Tao Deng (Shanghai Jiaotong University, China) and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen (University of California Santa Barbara, USA). The traditional memorial lecture of the B-MRS Meeting will be given by professor Cid Bartolomeu de Araújo (UFPE, Brazil). All speakers have confirmed their presence at the event.

The organizing committee of XIX B-MRS Meeting + IUMRS – ICEM 2021 is formed by professor Gustavo Martini Dalpian (UFABC) as conference chair, Carlos Cesar Bof Bufon (LNNANO) as program chair, and Flavio Leandro de Souza (UFABC) in the general secretary. In the international committee, the event has scientists from America, Asia, Europe and Oceania.

Event website: https://www.B-MRS .org.br/19encontro/

Featured scientist: Edson Roberto Leite.

Prof Edson Roberto Leite
Prof Edson Roberto Leite

Edson Roberto Leite memories related to science are all very pleasant: the book about rockets in his childhood in the interior of São Paulo, the opportunity to use an exceptional microscope during the sabbatical period in the United States, the discovery of a mechanism for the growth of nanocrystals at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory…

Some of these wonderful memories include the many occasions experienced alongside his tutor and scientific father, Professor José Arana Varela, a prominent Brazilian materials scientist who died in 2016. Arana Varela was honored by B-MRS with the creation, in 2019, of an award that bears his name, and which annually distinguishes a prominent researcher from Brazil, who gives a plenary lecture at the Society’s annual event. In its first edition, the award was befittingly granted to Edson Roberto Leite, professor at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) and scientific director of the Brazilian National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano-CNPEM). Leite is also editor for Latin America of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research (Springer).

Edson Roberto Leite received his first degree in Materials Engineering from UFSCar in 1988. In doubt between pursuing a career in industry or academia, he initially tried to reconcile both. After graduating, he worked in the research and development area at 3M, while doing his master’s degree and starting his doctorate, both in Materials Science and Engineering at UFSCar. In 1992, he left the company in order to dedicate his time to the doctorate, a decision that he recalls did not please his father-in-law, who was concerned with the livelihood of the family that by now included two children. However, over the years, the results of this decision have been very positive. In 1994, shortly after defending his doctorate, Leite became a professor in the Chemistry Department at UFSCar and started a career as a researcher in materials, which would not only be fruitful, but also enjoyable.

Co-author of more than 400 scientific articles published with more than 19 thousand citations, today Leite has an h index of 72 (Google Scholar). The scientist is also the editor of three books related to materials for energy and co-author of a book on the process of nucleation and growth of nanocrystals. Leite received several awards, including the Scopus Prize from Elsevier/CAPES (2006), for the excellence of his scientific production as a whole, and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship (2009), awarded to scientists with exceptional research skills. In 2012, Edson Leite was elected member of the World Academy of Ceramics and the Academy of Sciences of the State of São Paulo. In 2014, he was cochair of the Spring Meeting of Materials Research Society, held in San Frascisco (USA). In 2019 he was elected full member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (ABC).

Read our interview and learn more about this scientist, his main contributions and his memories of Professor Arana Varela.

B-MRS newsletter: At school, you had more affinity with science subjects, right? Do you remember how this taste for science originated?

Edson Roberto Leite: A person’s story always has the personal version and the version of the people who interacted with him. I will recount my perspective of how it happened.

At school I always had a strong affinity for Science and History. A striking memory was when I was in the third grade of elementary school and my father took me to the Municipal Library of Araras to take out a membership card so I could access books. The first book I chose was about rockets. I have always loved the conquest of space and the science behind fundamental historical moments. It is noteworthy that man had reached the moon only a few years earlier, nuclear power was seen as the global energy solution and semiconductors were just beginning.

In addition to this fond memory, there were other motivations, including Jonny Quest, a really cool cartoon. This animation, in addition to the adventures, had a lot of science fiction, and Jonny’s father (Dr. Benton Quest) was a renowned scientist with an excellent research laboratory in his own home.

My childhood, then, was always marked by a strong influence of science classes. I think it easily guided me to choose Engineering. At first the idea was to become a mechanical engineer, but during my prep course for the entrance exam I was introduced to Materials Engineering, at UFSCar. I took the exam in the middle of 1983 and passed. From then on I knew what I wanted and what I liked.

However, there was still a doubt, whether to go to the academic area or go to industry (my father was a Nestlé employee in Araras and the industrial sector always caught my attention). During my undergraduate studies, I went to live at the student housing headed by Celso V. Santilli (today an important researcher in the field of Materials, Professor at IQ-UNESP-Araraquara) and he helped me to participate in an undergraduate research program with professors Elson Longo and José Arana Varela. That was when I learned what science was and that increased my taste for the academic area. In 1984, I had the first undergraduate scholarship from FAPESP under the guidance of Professor Varela (who was a visiting professor in the Materials Engineering department (DEMa) at UFSCar). In 1988 I graduated, joined the DEMa-UFSCar master’s degree program and went to work as a development engineer at 3M do Brasil, in Sumaré, SP. My director at 3M was the engineer Aloysio Pizarro and he released me for the master’s degree (which I defended in 1990 under the guidance of Professor Elson) and for the doctorate (in 1990). In 1992, I realized it would be impossible to reconcile the research area and my activities at 3M, so I left 3M to focus entirely on my academic research, returning to São Carlos. I finished my doctorate in 1993 under the supervision of Professor José A. Varela. In January 1994, I became an adjunct professor in the Chemistry department at UFSCar and joined LIEC (Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Ceramics), founded by Elson, Varela and Bulhões (Professor Luís Otávio S. Bulhões). I went back to the place that had introduced me to science.

Those moments influenced me…

B-MRS newsletter: In your assessment, what are your main contributions to the Materials area?

Edson Roberto Leite: Ever since undergraduate research, I have been working mainly with inorganic materials, more specifically with ceramic materials. So, I will report the contributions I believe are most important, according to my point of view (in fact these may be the contributions I most enjoyed working with).

Since 1994 I have been working with chemical and physical-chemical materials and have been involved in several areas, among them: chemical synthesis of ceramic oxides, synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology, growth of nanocrystals, electrical properties of ceramic oxides, materials for application in alternative energy devices and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During this period, always developing works in collaboration with professors Elson Longo and José A. Varela, at LIEC of DQ-UFSCar. Among these different areas I will highlight my contributions to the growth of nanocrystals and the work on alternative energy.

In 1998, that is, 4 years after I was hired, I went on a sabbatical in the USA, in the group of Professor Martin P. Harmer, at Lehigh University (Betlehem, PA). In my sabbatical, I worked on converting polycrystalline ceramics into monocrystalline ceramics, using controlled grain growth. It was a wonderful year and my recollection of that period is vivid in my memory. I still remember the smell of the laboratory and the friendships I cultivated. From a professional point of view, the work drew my attention to the process of solid-state crystal growth. My contribution to the project was to characterize the growth process using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. At that time I had the opportunity to operate the VG-603 analytical transmission electron microscope. There were few microscopes like this being produced, and I still remember the words of the coordinator of the Lehigh microscopy laboratory, Dr. Dave Ackland saying that “few researchers in the world have had the honor of operating this equipment.” Returning to Brazil in 1999, I dedicated a lot of my time to microscopy and, with the help of the newly created Electronic Microscopy Laboratory of LNLS (created in 1997 by Dr. Daniel Ugarte), I began studying the process of growing nanocrystals in colloidal solution. I quickly identified, for SnO2 nanocrystals, a growth mechanism recently described in the literature known as “Oriented Attachment” (OA). The first article we published about this nanocrystal growth mechanism was in 2003. During this period I created a group of high-level master and doctoral students (today these students are researchers and professors), which truly allowed exploring this growth mechanism. In fact, we published, almost simultaneously with American groups, the first kinetic model to describe this growth process, and shortly afterwards we published two important articles, one related to the growth of anisotropic nanocrystals and the other correlating the OA process with a polymerization process. Both articles are considered pioneers in the area. International recognition in the area came with the invitation to publish two review articles (one at Nanoscale and the other at CrysEngComm), one of them in collaboration with leading international experts in the field of nanocrystal growth kinetics by OA.

I started working in alternative energy in 2004, when I helped organize a symposium on the theme at the MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco. After that, we invested in this area and, with a new group of brilliant students, we achieved fantastic results, between 2007 and 2016, regarding the development of hematite photo anodes to promote water photo-electrolysis aimed at hydrogen production. We developed an electrode manufacturing process based on colloidal nanocrystal deposition. This enabled the highest impact publications of my career, in journals such as JACS and Energy Environ. Sci. In the same period we developed a method for synthesizing MoS2 (2D material), combining non-hydrolytic sol-gel method and microwave reaction. This again resulted in excellent materials for electrocatalysis and for supercapacitors. This research also enabled publications in high-impact journals, such as Chem. Comm and Advanced Energy Materials. Without a doubt, this team of students placed us in the state-of-the-art to develop materials for alternative energy.

I would like to highlight just one more important contribution, which was in the study of the combustion process in glass-melting furnaces, carried out with funding from White Martins/Praxair. In this work, carried out with Professor Carlos Paskocimas (currently at UFRN) and Professors Elson and Varela, we characterized the corrosion rate of the furnaces and proposed technological solutions to inhibit this corrosion. This work was a success at the time and we were invited to present the results at Corning Glass and Praxair in the United States.

B-MRS newsletter: You were celebrated in the first edition of the B-MRS José Arana Varela award, which honors this prominent Brazilian scientist (who died in 2016), former president of B-MRS. Professor Varela was your doctoral advisor and co-author of many published articles. Could you share with us some memories about Professor Varela and comment on the scientific partnership both of you developed over time? Feel free to leave any more personal comments.

Edson Roberto Leite: As I mentioned above, I was introduced to Professors Varela and Elson during my undergraduate years, and Professor Varela was my undergraduate and PhD advisor. In fact, I was Varela’s first doctoral student, in 1993. Being the first to win this award is an honor, which made me very happy. Besides being my advisor, Professor Varela was a tutor and almost a father, teaching me and introducing me to the national and international scientific community. It was with him that I made my first trip abroad, in 1993, where he introduced me to the great names of international Ceramics at the American Congress of The American Ceramic Society. It was at this opportunity that I met Professor Gary Messing and Professor Harmer. I remember him introducing me to the famous Professor W.D. Kingery, the father of modern Ceramics. It was Varela who encouraged me to be a member of World Academy of Ceramics. There were several trips, opening new work fronts and new research areas. As a tutor and advisor he knew how to get my attention and point out my mistakes. I remember, more recently, at an MRS Fall meeting in Boston (USA), a long discussion that we had where he, without hesitation, “pulled my ear” and helped me handle future problems I would face as a group leader in the Materials Chemistry area. I know he saw me as a rebellious student, but I’m sure he was proud of the training he gave me. His premature death took me by surprise and I miss him very much. I miss our discussions, our conversations and especially his advice and guidance.

B-MRS newsletter: Please leave a message for our younger readers who are starting a scientific career or are evaluating this possibility.

Edson Roberto Leite: I am not good with words, my students and former students know that I am very direct. I never worried about planning my career, everything was happening as I followed my instincts. What I am today is largely due to my students and the support of two scientific parents, professors Elson and Varela. My job is not a job, it is a hobby. So my message is: To achieve success in a scientific career you must really like what you do.

Featured paper: Antimicrobial dental implants.

SEM image of the new antibiofilm coating.
SEM image of the new antibiofilm coating.

Bacterial biofilms are formed by communities embedded in a self-produced polymeric matrix forming a three-dimensional structure. Biofilms grow attached to the most diverse surfaces, natural or artificial, and can include a variety of bacteria and fungi. When found on our teeth, these microbial communities can cause well-known health damage, such as dental caries. Even inside the mouth, where biofilms tend to form, dental implants can also be harmed by the action of biofilms. In fact, the main cause of failure in dental implants is related to infections in the tissues surrounding the implant, due to bacterial accumulation on the titanium screws implanted by a surgeon dentist in the jaw bone or maxilla to support the dental prosthesis.

In light of this problem, a team of researchers from areas related to dentistry and materials developed a coating capable of reducing the adhesion of bacteria and fungi to the titanium surface, thus attacking the formation of biofilms in its initial stage. In the new coating, the bacterial adhesion was eight times less than in uncoated titanium. In addition, the coating changed the composition of the microbial population in the biofilms that appeared on the surface. Thus, the presence of bacteria directly responsible for generating infections around the implants was seven times less in the coating than in the uncoated titanium. “Our coating not only reduced the adhesion of microorganisms, but also modified its composition to a less aggressive host profile,” summarizes professor Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão (UNICAMP), corresponding author of the paper related to the study, recently published in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. Finally, in addition to generating antibiofilm properties on titanium, the coating maintained this material’s biocompatibility, allowing the growth of human cells on its surface, and increased its resistance to corrosion.

According to the authors of the work, this new coating may be a promising strategy to control the formation of biofilms in titanium implants and thus reduce the development of microbial infections. “Countless coatings have been developed in this area,” contextualizes Professor Barão. “However, the ones available on the market aim, mainly, to improve biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, but not effective in reducing the accumulation of microorganisms.” According to the authors of the article, in order to apply coated titanium to patients and make it available on the market, it would be necessary to test its insertion as a dental implant in animal models and, finally, to conduct a controlled clinical trial that contemplates the insertion of the material in humans.

From developing the material to in vitro and in situ studies

The authors of the paper. From the left: Joao Gabriel Silva Souza, Martinna M. Bertolini, Raphael Cavalcante Costa, Jairo Matozinho Cordeiro, Bruna Egumi Nagay, Amanda B Almeida, Belén Retamal-Valdes, Francisco Nociti, Magda Feres, Elidiane Cipriano Rangel, and Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barao.
The authors of the paper. From the left: Joao Gabriel Silva Souza, Martinna M. Bertolini, Raphael Cavalcante Costa, Jairo Matozinho Cordeiro, Bruna Egumi Nagay, Amanda B Almeida, Belén Retamal-Valdes, Francisco
Nociti, Magda Feres, Elidiane Cipriano Rangel, and Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barao.

The research was carried out within the doctorate of João Gabriel Silva Souza, with guidance from Professor Barão and funding from Brazilian agencies Fapesp and Capes. The thesis was defended in 2019 in the Graduate Program on Dental Clinic of the School of Dentistry at UNICAMP Piracicaba.

The main objective of the thesis, says Souza, was to develop a coating for titanium, a widely used material in dentistry, that has the ability to reduce microbial accumulation by using low-pressure plasma technology. Bibliographic searches have shown that a superhydrophobic surface would be a promising alternative to reduce the adhesion of bacteria to titanium and its alloys. A surface is considered to be superhydrophobic (that is, very difficult to wet) when the angle formed between it and a drop of water is greater than 150º. Superhydrophobicity, in turn, is based on high surface roughness and chemical composition.

“Based on this idea and previous studies already developed by Professor Barão’s research group, we aimed to develop a superhydrophobic coating with plasma technology, changing various parameters, such as pressure, gases, etc.” says Souza.

The coating was developed and characterized at the Laboratory of Technological Plasmas – UNESP – Sorocaba, which includes the Multi-User Laboratory for Characterization of Materials, under the guidance of Professor Elidiane Rangel. “Professor Elidiane has broad experience in the area and has been contributing extensively to our research group in the development of coatings for dental applicability,” explains Professor Barão.

While the scientific literature recorded superhydrophobic coatings manufactured mainly in two stages (one to obtain roughness and the second to achieve hydrophobicity), Professor Rangel manufactured the coating in just one step, using the technique of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition). In this technique, an atmosphere of carefully selected gases is formed inside a reactor (in this case, oxygen, argon and hexamethyldisiloxane, of the formula C6H18OSi2). This atmosphere is highly energized (in a plasma state) after applying an electrical voltage, when the gases decompose and generate species (atoms, molecules, ions) with great propensity to react chemically. These species form new compounds that are deposited in a solid state on the surface of the material to be coated (in this case, titanium).

To manufacture the superhydrophobic coating using this technique, Professor Elidiane carried out a unique 60-minute process. The result was a surface based on silicon and oxygen, similar in appearance to cauliflower, with a different roughness. Making an analogy with the relief of our planet, the coating presented, on the micrometric scale, mountains of different heights and shapes, separated by valleys and canyons.

After obtaining the coating, in order to test its effectiveness as an antibiofilm, the study involved research groups from the University of Guarulhos and the University of Connecticut Health Center (USA), where the then doctoral student Souza carried out a doctoral internship.” In addition, the Brazilian National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) and the Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory (LNBio) were used to characterize the coating and analyze the composition of adhered proteins, respectively.

The team of scientists then carried out a series of microbiological tests and analyses, both in the laboratory (in vitro) and in the mouth of volunteers (in situ), always comparing uncoated titanium and the titanium with the superhydrophobic coating. In one of the in vitro experiments, they used natural saliva as a culture medium for several microorganisms usually found in biofilms that grow on the implants. In contact with this medium, the coated titanium samples showed a very good antibiofilm performance with respect to the uncoated titanium: the adhesion of the set of microbes was eight times lower, and, in particular, the adhesion of a bacteria directly responsible for the formation of the biofilm matrix was 17 times smaller. Consequently, in a later stage of the experiment, biofilm formation in the coating was scarce and sparse.

In another interesting test, carried out in situ, four volunteers used a device on the palate during 3 days. This device was made with some untreated titanium discs and others with a superhydrophobic coating. When analyzing the composition of biofilms formed on the two surfaces, with the collaboration of professor Magda Feres of the University of Guarulhos, the researchers were once again surprised by the positive performance of the developed coating, which reduced by seven times the presence of pathogens directly associated with infections that lead to dental implant failures.

Above and to the left, 3D reconstruction based on confocal laser microscopy shows the dense formation of peaks in the new coating. High roughness with respect to uncoated titanium (control) can also be seen below. In the center, the obtained superhydrophobicity: the drop of water does not spread on the surface. On the right, images show the coating with proliferation of human cells, showing biocompatibility (above) and with reduced bacterial accumulation (green spots), below.
Above and to the left, 3D reconstruction based on confocal laser microscopy shows the dense formation of peaks in the new coating. High roughness with respect to uncoated titanium (control) can also be seen below. In the center, the obtained superhydrophobicity: the drop of water does not spread on the surface. On the right, images show the coating with proliferation of human cells, showing biocompatibility (above) and with reduced bacterial accumulation (green spots), below.